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U posljednje tri godine u USK-u zatvoreno 2.000 malih preduzeća i obrta


Migracija stanovništa Unsko-sanskog kantona u zemlje EU odrazila se u svim segmentima društva, a posebno se to osjeti u privredi i poljoprivredi. U protekle tri godine na području USK-a zbog nemogućnosti pozitivnog poslovanja, plasmana proizvoda na inostrano tržište, te brojnih drugih problema sa kojima se susreću obrtnici, zatvoreno je oko 2.000 malih preduzeća, odnosno obrta.

Samo u protekloj godini Rješenje o zatvaranju dobilo je 552 obrta. Isti toliki broj zaposlenika ostao je bez radnog odnosa. Da li su na evidenciji nezaposlenih Zavoda za zapošljavanje USK-a, ili su napustili Kanton, niko nema podataka.


Međutim, ima i pozitivnih primjera. Tako je u 2019.godine otvoreno 306 novih obrta i isto toliko ljudi zasnovalo radni odnos. Trenutno u USK egzistira oko 4.000 obrta što u prosjeku ima po dva zaposlena, i upravo su oni, tvrde u Obrtničkoj komori USK sigurno bolje platiše i više pune budžete od nekih „velikih“ preduzeća.  

Prema riječima Enesa Arapović, predsjednika Obrtničke komore USK u posljednje tri godine došlo je do krize u BiH, ali i u susjednim državama kada je u pitanju odlazak mlade radne snage. Za tu činjenicu krivi su svi,smatra Arapović, od poslodavaca, do predstavnika državnih vlasti.  


„Poslodavci, odnosno mi, svi smo tome doprinijeli. Jako je loš odnos poslodavca prema zaposlenicima počevši od neplaćanja ličnog dohotka, od broja sati provedenih na poslu, a da ne pričamo o godišnjim odmorima i slobodnim danima. Kada su se otvorile granice i kada se pružila prilika za mlade ljude da posao dobiju u zemljama EU, tada se to i desilo. Ono što nas više boli je da u posljednje tri godine niko od kantonalnih do federalnih vlasti nije sjeo zajedno sa nama da zajednički pronađemo modul kako spriječiti odlazak mladih ljudi. Tri godine je zaista veliki period kada smo se svi trebali zapitati šta i kako dalje, ali nažalost ni danas nikoga nije briga za to. Kao da je interes i naše države i vlade da što više mladih ljudi ode i iseli“, ističe Arapović.    

Vrlo malo je svjetlih primjera u vidu pomoći i mjera za prevazilaženje krize. Neke od njih su javni pozivi koje realizira Federalni zavod za zapošljavanje u vidu subvencioniranja sredstava za zapošljavanje i samozapošljavanje.

Arapović ističe da bi se pored mjera koje bi nadležni trebali poduzeti kako bi zadržali mlade ljude u našoj zemlji, trebao mijenjati i sistem obrazovanja.

„Imamo i pohvalnih iskustava gdje mladi ljudi žele raditi i živjeti u svojoj državi, ali nažalost  nema interesa od naših vladajućih struktura. Prijedlog je da mladu osobu koja otvara svoj biznis na tri godine oslobodimo plaćanja doprinosa te da pozitivno starta i zaradi svoj dinar. Također, imamo problem da je zakonski regulisano da bez određene struke ne možes registrirati svoj obrt. Mi već pregovaramo sa Ministarstvom obrazovanja, nauke, kulture i sporta USK i Ministarstvom privrede i pokušavamo da se tim ljudima omogući da mogu sebi registrirati obrt, jer oni su formalno –pravno već obučeni raditi mnoge zanate koje žele da registriraju. Čovjeka koji zna raditi svoj posao, ocijenit će tržište bez obzira da li ima ili ne adekvatnu diplomu, što se posebno odnosi na zanatlije. U srijedu 18. marta imat ćemo potpisivanje Memoranduma sa njemačkom fondacijom „Krila nade“ te sa Udruženjem za psiho-socijalnu podršku „Progres“ iz Sarajeva gdje se svake godine minimalno četiri mlade osobe prekvalifikuju kod poslodavca u radnom odnosu i gdje im se subvencionira plata od oko 400 KM, a poslodavac im daje platu u narednih šest mjeseci. Do sada je prekvalifikaciju prošlo 87 osoba, 52 polaznika su ostala kod svog poslodavca u radnom odnosu, 20 ih je otišlo u EU, a za četiri polaznika nemamo evidenciju“, kazao je Arapović.


Arapović dodaje da bi se mnoge mjere mogle poduzeti kako bi se spriječio ili eventualno smanjio odliv mlade snage u zemlje EU, ali nema dovoljno sluha od strane države. Mnogi mladi ljudi bi željeli pokrenuti vlastiti biznis, ideja imaju mnogo, ali ih zakonski normativi u startu onemogućavaju bilo u vidu obrazovanja ili fiskalne politike.  

Ali, dodaje nisu samo razlozi ekonomske prilike za odlazak mladih.Tu je cjelokupna politička situacija u zemlji i čini se, u posljednje vrijeme ona je presudna što iz naše zemlje odlaze ne samo mladi ljudi, nego i porodice. 



In the last three years, 2,000 small businesses and crafts have been closed in the USC

Migration of Una-Sana Canton population into EU countries was reflected in all segments of society, especially in the economy and agriculture. In the past three years, around 2,000 small businesses, or crafts, have been closed in the USC area due to the inability to operate positively, place products on the foreign market, and numerous other problems encountered by craftsmen.

In the past year alone, the Closure Decision received 552 trades. The same number of employees lost their jobs. There are no records as to whether the USC Employment Bureau records are unemployed or have left Canton.

However, there are some positive examples. Thus, in 2019, 306 new businesses were opened and as many people started working. Currently, there are about 4,000 trades in the USC, which has an average of two employees each, and they are, according to the Chamber of Trades and Crafts, certainly paying better and fuller budgets than some "big" companies.

According to Enes Arapovic, the president of the USC Chamber of Crafts over the past three years, there has been a crisis in B&H, but also in neighboring countries when it comes to leaving the young workforce. Arapovic believes that this fact is to blame, from employers, to representatives of state authorities.

"Employers, or us, have all contributed to this. It is a very bad attitude of the employer towards the employees, starting with the non-payment of personal income, the number of hours spent at work, without talking about vacations and days off. When the borders were opened and when young people were given the opportunity to get a job in EU countries, that's when it happened. What hurts us more is that in the last three years, no one from the cantonal to the federal authorities has sat down with us to jointly find a module on how to prevent young people from leaving. Three years is a really big time when we all have to ask ourselves what and how to go, but unfortunately even today no one cares. It is as if it is the interest of both our states and governments to have as many young people as possible going and moving out“, Arapovic points out.

There are very few bright examples of aid and measures to overcome the crisis. Some of these are public calls made by the Federal Employment Service in the form of subsidies for employment and self-employment funds.

Arapovic points out that in addition to the measures that the authorities should take to keep young people in our country, the education system should also be changed.

"We also have laudable experiences where young people want to work and live in their own country, but unfortunately there is no interest in our governing structures. The proposal is to release a young person who starts his business for three years to pay contributions and to start and earn his penny positively. Also, we have a problem that it is regulated by law that without a certain profession you cannot register your craft. We are already negotiating with the USC Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports and the Ministry of Economy and are trying to enable these people to register for a trade because they are formally - legally trained to do many trades they want to register. A man who knows how to do his job will evaluate the market whether or not he has an adequate degree, which is especially true for artisans. On Wednesday, March 18, we will have a Memorandum with the German Wings of Hope Foundation and the Progress Psycho-Social Support Association in Sarajevo, where at least four young people are retrained each year with an employer and are subsidized with a salary of around 400 KM, and the employer gives them a salary for the next six months. So far, 87 people have gone through retraining, 52 trainees have stayed with their employer, 20 have gone to the EU, and we have no records for four trainees“, Arapovic said.

Arapovic adds that many measures could be taken to prevent or eventually reduce the outflow of young power into EU countries, but there is not enough hearing from the state. Many young people would like to start their own businesses, they have many ideas, but they are initially hindered by legal norms, whether in the form of education or fiscal policy.

But, he adds, not only are the reasons for the economic opportunity for young people to leave. This is the overall political situation in the country and it seems that recently it is crucial that not only young people but also families leave our country.

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